hole transport - strong acceptor

P-doping is used in OLEDs to improve device performance with lower voltage, higher efficiency. P-doping is the implementation of impurities to increase the number of charge carriers.


p-(positive) doped hole side transport layer


Panel- and Fabrication Technologies for OLEDs

Transfer-printing is an emerging technology with the capability to assemble large numbers of parallel OLED and AMOLED devices under efficient conditions. Transfer-printing takes advantage of standard metal deposition, photolithography, and etching to create alignment marks on device substrates, commonly glass.


Photodiode Array

A linear array of discrete photodiodes on an integrated-circuit chip used in digital detection systems. (Source: Novaled Homepage)


Power Efficiency / Luminous Efficacy

The power efficiency takes into account the applied voltage and the current that are necessary to achieve a particular brightness. The power efficiency is given in lm/W and this value is a suitable measure to compare different light sources and technologies with one another. It has already been demonstrated that white OLEDs can be made with an efficacy up to 80 lm/W with color meeting Energy Star specification, and up to 124 lm/W with color outside DOE specifications. (Source: OLED Lighting Users Manual)


Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes

PHOLED is a trademark of Universal Display. PHOLEDs are a type of organic light-emitting diode that use the principle of phosphorescence to obtain higher internal efficiencies than fluorescent OLEDs. 

PIN OLED technology

PIN = P-doped, Intrinsic, N-doped

Novaled® PIN OLED technology focuses on charge transport layers in organic devices. By doping these layers and applying Novaled’s technology as well as transport and doping materials, devices achieve highest performance values. Novaled’s OLED doping results in a unique combination of high power efficiency and long lifetime. Novaled PIN OLED technology is a registered US trademark.


Picture Element

The image shown on displays is made up of lots of small dots called pixels. Collectively, the number of pixels displayed is referred to as the image’s resolution. A pixel on a display in general consists of a number of red, green and blue sub-pixels. When all three sub-pixels are emitting, the pixel appears white to the human eye (from a certain distance).



The luminescence effect resulting from the stimulation of a material with UV, visible, or IR radiation. 

PM-[ ]

Passiv Matrix

Passiv-matrix is a technology used in small-size displays like MP3 players, mobile phone subdisplays, automobile dash board displays. These basic flat-panel displays are created by laying a layer of liquid-crystal diode elements or OLEDs between two crossed grids of wires. By applying current to the various intersections, the pixel/diodes can be lit. Passive displays simply apply current to the diodes at a specific refresh rate to maintain an image.


A pn junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor material, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor. Pn- junctions are elementary "building blocks" of most semiconductor electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, solar cells, LEDs, and integrated circuits; they are the active sites where the electronic action of the device takes place.


Polymer OLEDs

Polymer OLEDs, sometimes referred to as PLED. POLEDs use large-molecule composed of many repeated subunits (as opposed to small-molecule materials).



A method of converting solar energy into direct current electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. A photovoltaic system employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells to supply usable solar power. 


Physical Vapor Deposition

Deposition of thin film occurs through physical transfer of material (e.g. thermal evaporation and sputtering) from the source to the substrate. The chemical composition of deposited material is not altered during the process.