Laboratory to Fabrication

Upscaling a product from low units in a laboratory (gram scale) to mass production in a fabrication (multi kilogram to ton scale).


Liquid Crystal Display

An LCD is a flat display technology that uses liquid crystal to modulate light. LCDs do not emit light by themselves and require a backlight (typically a cold compact fluorescent lamp or LED).


Liquid Crystal on Silicon

LCD built on crystalline Silicon substrate which results in small pixel sizes and highest resolutions. LCoS is used for micro-displays.


Light Emitting Diode

An LED is a device made from inorganic semiconductors that emits light when electricity is applied. LEDs are used as backlighting for LCD displays and for general lighting applications.



A measure of the power of light as perceived by our eyes. It is also used to label the light output in lamps. For example, a 23 watt CFL emits about 1500 lm.


Lumens per watt

Lumens per watt is the unit of the power efficiency, which is a measure for the efficacy of light sources. Typical lm/W values are: Incandescent lamp: 10 lm/W, Halogen lamp: 25 lm/w, CFL: 50-75 lm/W, LED: 80–100 lm/W, theoretical limit is about 200 lm/W, OLED: today 10–45 lm/W, theoretical limit is about 150–170 lm/W).


Is measure of the perceived brightness of a light emitting surface (e.g. display).


Lowest Unocupied Molecular Orbital

An Orbital is the wave function of an electron that describes the place in which an electron with a certain probability is located. In a molecule there are different molecular orbitals which can be occupied with an electron. The LUMO is the unoccupied molecular orbital with the lowest energy.